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Culture and Intelligence – Resources


  • Cultural Intelligence for Winning the Peace, Institute of World Politics Press, 2009
  • U.S. National Intelligence: An Overview, 2011
  • In the Spring 2010 issue of the International Journal of Intelligence Ethics, IWP Professor Juliana Geran Pilon reviews George Lucas’ book, Anthropologists in Arms: The Ethics of Military Anthropology.  Please click here for the journal.
  • Why Culture Matters: An Empirically-Based Pre-Deployment Training Program, Thesis by Jennifer B. Chandler for the Naval Postgraduate School
  • Operational Culture for the Warfighter: Principles and Applications, Book by Barak A. Salmoni and Paula Holmes-Eber, published by the Marine Corps University Press
  • Air Force Culture, Region, and Language Flight Plan, May 2009.  “It is imperative that we tailor our cultural, regional, and language competency development to maximize our efforts and meet Air Force and Joint requirements informed by National guidance. To this end, the Air Force Culture, Region, and Language (CRL) Flight Plan represents our framework for implementing relevant National Security and National Defense strategies via Air Force programs.”
  • Information on Social Intelligence, or Cultural Intelligence, from Air University.  This website provides links to several papers, articles, and other resources on cultural intelligence.
  • Small Wars Journal: “Small wars are operations undertaken under executive authority, wherein military force is combined with diplomatic pressure in the internal or external affairs of another state whose government is unstable, inadequate, or unsatisfactory for the preservation of life and of such interests as are determined by the foreign policy of our Nation.” –Small Wars Manual, 1940.  Please click here for more information about the Small Wars Journal
  • Homeland Security Affairs is the peer-reviewed online journal of the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS), providing a forum to propose and debate strategies, policies, and organizational arrangements to strengthen U.S. homeland security. The instructors, participants, alumni, and partners of CHDS represent the leading subject matter experts and practitioners in the field of homeland security. Homeland Security Affairs captures the best of their collective work, as well as that of scholars and practitioners throughout the nation, through peer-reviewed articles on new strategies, policies, concepts and data relating to every aspect of Homeland Security. These articles constitute not only the “smart practices” but also the evolution of Homeland Security as an emerging academic and professional discipline.
  • The Sentinel by West Point’s Combating Terrorism Center
  • Command and General Staff College publications on cultural awareness
  • Army Foreign Military Studies Office
  • Strategic Studies Institute at the United States Army War College, publications on cultural intelligence  
  • The Cultural Cognition Project is a group of scholars interested in studying how cultural values shape public risk perceptions and related policy beliefs. Cultural cognition refers to the tendency of individuals to conform their beliefs about disputed matters of fact (e.g., whether global warming is a serious threat; whether the death penalty deters murder; whether gun control makes society more safe or less) to values that define their cultural identities. Project members are using the methods of various disciplines — including social psychology, anthropology, communications, and political science — to chart the impact of this phenomenon and to identify the mechanisms through which it operates. The Project also has an explicit normative objective: to identify processes of democratic decisionmaking by which society can resolve culturally grounded differences in belief in a manner that is both congenial to persons of diverse cultural outlooks and consistent with sound public policymaking.
  • The U.S. Army Peacekeeping & Stability Operations Institute serves as the U.S. Army’s Center of Excellence for Stability and Peace Operations at the Strategic and Operational levels in order to improve military, civilian agency, international, and multinational capabilities and execution.  Please click here for this organization’s blog and quarterly online journal.
  • U.S. Military Information Operations in Afghanistan: Effectiveness of Psychological Operations 2001-2010.  By Arturo Munoz, RAND Corporation.  The U.S. Marine Corps, which has long recognized the importance of influencing the civilian population in a counterinsurgency environment, requested an evaluation of the effectiveness of the psychological operations (PSYOP) element of U.S. military information operations in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2010 based on how well messages and themes were tailored to target audiences. This monograph responds to that request. It summarizes the diverse PSYOP initiatives undertaken, evaluates their effectiveness, identifies strengths and weaknesses, and describes the way forward, including making certain specific recommendations for improvements. Special attention is paid to how well PSYOP initiatives were tailored to target audiences, primarily the Pashtuns who are the dominant population in the conflictive areas and the main support of the Taliban insurgency. It contains reports of specific operations that were successful in achieving objectives, as well as examples of operations that did not resonate with target audiences and even some that had counterproductive effects. The biggest PSYOP successes were in face-to-face communication and the emphasis on meetings with jirgas (local councils of elders), key-leader engagements, and establishing individual relationships with members of the Afghan media. In addition, the concept of every infantryman as a PSYOP officer proved very effective. The most notable shortcoming was the inability to sufficiently counter the Taliban propaganda campaign against U.S. and coalition forces on the theme of civilian casualties, both domestically and internationally.

Interagency Work

  • Interagency, Intergovernmental Organization, and Nongovernmental Organization Coordination During Joint Operations Vol I, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 17 March 2006.
    Volume I discusses the interagency, intergovernmental organization (IGO), and nongovernmental organization (NGO) environment and provides fundamental principles and guidance to facilitate coordination between the Department of Defense, and other US Government agencies, IGOs, NGOs, and regional organizations.
  • Interagency, Intergovernmental Organization, and Nongovernmental Organization Coordination During Joint Operations Vol II, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 17 March 2006. Volume II describes key US Government departments and departments and agencies, IGOs and NGOs — their core competencies, basic organizational structures, and relationship, or potential relationship, with the Armed Forces of the United States
  • Incorporating Cultural Intelligence into the Joint Doctrine, by John P. (Jay) Coles, Commander, USN.  Joint Information Operations Center.  The author examines perceived flaws in joint intelligence doctrine, especially lack of emphasis on cultural intelligence, using case studies from the current campaign in Southwest Asia. He suggests joint commanders and joint intelligence professionals will have difficulty asking and answering the right questions until both embrace doctrine-driven changes to intelligence guidance and training.
  • Human Terrain System (HTS) is a new proof-of-concept program, run by the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), and serving the joint community. The near-term focus of the HTS program is to improve the military’s ability to understand the highly complex local socio-cultural environment in the areas where they are deployed; however, in the long-term, HTS hopes to assist the US government in understanding foreign countries and regions prior to an engagement within that region.
  • Joint Force Quarterly: NDU Press produces JFQ in concert with ongoing education and research at National Defense University in support of the Secretary of Defense and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. JFQ is the Chairman’s joint military and security studies journal designed to inform and educate national security professionals on joint and integrated operations; whole of government contributions to national security policy and strategy; homeland security; and developments in training and joint military education to better equip America’s military and security apparatus to meet tomorrow’s challenges while protecting freedom today.
  • The American Center for Democracy’s Economic Warfare Institute (EWI) is dedicated to tracking and analyzing economic threats directed against the United States and other Western democracies.  Especially informative are its blog and newsletter.

Department of Defense

Irregular Warfare


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